You may also be using confusing terminology:
Marching Formation - a body of soldiers moving from one place to the next as a body.
Battle Formation - the positioning of soldiers in a group as they are about to engage in battle.
Medieval marching formations were one of two types: mob and big mob. Soldiers of the Early Imperial Period Roman Army may have marched in distinct formations but in the time frame from app. 500-1500 there is virtually no evidence that groups of soldiers travelled in anything other than a mob moving along the same road.
The battle formations of the medieval period would have been not much more coherant that the marching formations. Mobs of archers split into maybe two large groups; foot soldiers usually lumped in the middle in no more than three mobs (maybe a fourth in reserve if the leader was an advanced strategist); and one or two cavalry mobs prancing about.
The Military Revolution (c. 1550-1650 C.E.) saw the introduction of what we think of as disciplined battle formations based on Roman and Greek theories. There are lots of reprints of military manuals from that time period showing how to line up your pikes, muskets, cavalry and artillery. You will be looking for either the "Spanish" style of large blocks or the "Swedish" style of linear battalions. Some good modern resources:
The Army of Gustavus Adolphus (1): Infantry (Men-at-Arms) (Paperback)
by Richard Brzezinski (Author), Richard Hook (Illustrator), Osprey Publishing, 1991, ISBN: 978-0850459975
Matchlock Musketeer: 1588-1688 (Warrior) (Paperback) by Keith Roberts (Author), Stephen Walsh (Illustrator), Osprey Publishing, 2002, ISBN: 978-1841762128
Soldiers of the English Civil War (1): Infantry (Elite) (Paperback)
by Keith Roberts (Author), Angus Mcbride (Illustrator), Osprey Publishing, 1989, ISBN: 978-0850459036